In the production chains of solar cells, two main types of technologies are used: “mono” and “multi”. In both cases, polysilicon is used as a raw material. In the case of manufacturing “mono” wafers the Czochralski method is used, and in the case of “multi”- ingot growth takes place in a vacuum induction furnace. The difference lies in the fact that "mono" gives a clearly oriented crystal in one direction, but its production volume is limited (to 200 kg). In the case of the production of ingots and further cutting of the “multi” wafers, the output of the product is significantly higher (up to 1,5 tons), but there is a multi-directional growth of the crystals, and therefore a decrease in the efficiency of the solar converters. Many scientists of the production group have tried to cross these 2 methods over the past two decades, but unsuccefully. A member of our partnership, the French company “ECM GREENTECH” together with the French National Institute of Solar Energy managed to do this after five years of working together. The developed technology “Crystalmax” allows to produce up to 1.5 tons of “caste-mono” material, most of which is a single crystal. The efficiency of the “Crystalmax” solar cells already exceeds 21% in industrial production.
In our opinion, this technology ideally answers to the conditions of creating new localized production facilities in Georgia and allows starting profitable production by limiting output of enough material to assemble up to 100 MW of solar modules.